Multiple Means of Representation

Universal Design for Learning: Multiple Means of Representation


Provide Multiple Means of Representation (MMR) has been referred to as the “what” of learning (Rose & Meyer, 2002). The National Center on UDL describes Multiple Means of Representation in this way:

Learners differ in the ways that they perceive and comprehend information that is presented to them. For example, those with sensory disabilities (e.g., blindness or deafness); learning disabilities (e.g., dyslexia); language or cultural differences, and so forth may all require different ways of approaching content. Others may simply grasp information quicker or more efficiently through visual or auditory means rather than printed text. Also learning, and transfer of learning, occurs when multiple representations are used, because it allows students to make connections within, as well as between, concepts. In short, there is not one means of representation that will be optimal for all learners; providing options for representation is essential.
- National Center on UDL, Principle I, 2011

The Center provides expanded Guidelines with examples under each Checkpoint to increase the understanding of ways to Provide Multiple Means of Representation (). Below are some specific examples of Multiple Means of Representation that postsecondary instructor might use.

Some Ways to Provide Multiple Means of Representation in Postsecondary Classes

  • Provide comprehensive print and electronic syllabus specifying course requirements, course expectations, and due dates
  • Give multiple forms of instructor contact information
  • Include examples or illustrations of all major course assignments or activities
  • Use advanced organizers to highlight essential course concepts
  • Present course content using visual, auditory, graphic, and verbal formats
  • Ensure accessibility of course content and materials by using accessible documents and websites
  • Use captioned videos
  • Select textbooks that offer e-book options
  • Incorporate cooperative group activities
  • Encourage use of software which reads websites and documents